The rise in oil prices has made Japan the biggest beneficiary

  The three oil crises of the 1970s and 1990s profoundly changed the industrial structure of the automotive powerhouses in Europe and the US. But they also represented opportunities. If there was only one winner in this far-reaching series of historical events, it was Japanese cars.

  Before the oil crisis, although Japanese cars had an export layout in overseas markets, their share was always small. At the same time, the inherent impressions of Europeans and Americans such as counterfeit products, quality and low grade always lingered on the top of Japanese cars. However, after the oil crisis, Western consumers had to accept the reality, and Japanese cars ushered in the trend of going global.

  Taking advantage of the opportunity of the oil crisis, Japanese cars eventually became an important pole of the global automobile industry. But in addition to the impact of objective events now known as "black swans", the subjective initiative of the Japanese automobile industry is also worthy of future memories. Freezing three feet is not a day’s cold, the formation of an automobile industrial country is the main reason.

  Growing up in war

  The original Japanese auto industry was born in the 1930s, 30-50 years later than the developed countries in Europe and the United States. At that time, the Japanese market was dominated by American cars, and giants such as General Motors and Ford established assembly plants in the country. Later, factories such as Toyota and Datsun (the predecessor of Nissan) created the first cars produced by Japanese companies by reverse-copying European and American models such as Chevrolet, Chrysler, and Austin.

  At the same time, in order to encourage the production of autonomous vehicles, the Japanese government also promulgated the "Automobile Manufacturing Business Law", which stipulates that companies that produce more than 3,000 cars a year must be approved by the government, and more than half of the shares must be owned by local companies. However, the Great Depression that swept the world at the time brought the fledgling Japanese automakers to the brink of bankruptcy.

  At this time, they were saved by a full-scale war of aggression launched by Japanese militarism. The early Japanese car companies were transformed into arsenal factories that started the war machine, but they were also quickly dealt a heavy blow by the defeat of the war. After the end of World War II, Japan, a defeated country, was devastated by society and economy, and its fledgling automobile industry was also on the verge of destruction.

  In this context, the Japanese government, which had just announced its unconditional surrender, still called together the few car companies at the time, demonstrating the government’s support for the auto industry. On the other hand, the United States, out of consideration against the Soviet camp, stationed troops in Japan and began to support Japan’s economy. Especially during the Korean War, the US military provided a large number of military truck orders to the nearest Japan, allowing Japanese car companies that were struggling after the war to quickly recover. For Japanese cars, this also provides an opportunity for them to open up the US market in the future.

  In order to make up for the lack of resources during the economic difficulties, the Japanese government began to encourage the production of short-wheelbase and small-displacement cars through preferential policies such as tax reduction, resulting in the series of cars known as K-Cars. These economical and practical cars not only quickly popularized cars in postwar Japanese households, but also laid the foundation for the subsequent industrial upgrading of Japanese cars. With the support of policies, the number of car companies in Japan after the war rapidly increased from single digits to nearly 30.

  Since the 1950s, the Japanese government has promulgated the "Basic Guidelines for the Introduction of Foreign Investment in Passenger Vehicles", and began to continuously introduce technology to developed countries in Europe, America, and Japan’s car companies have successively established cooperative relations with overseas auto giants. In 1950, Toyota’s then president, Eiji Toyoda, made a special trip to Detroit to inspect Ford’s factories; Nissan’s predecessor, Datsun, officially purchased the patents of Austin in the United Kingdom in 1952 and assembled cars in Japan in the form of CKD. Austin provided technical assistance to Datsun. In addition, cooperation between Hino and French Renault, Mitsubishi and Chevrolet of the United States is also developing.

  By the early 1960s, Japanese car companies had completed the original accumulation of technology, and the annual production and sales of domestic cars exceeded 400,000. In November 1963, Japan further established the automobile industry as a strategic industry at the Industrial Structure Review Conference. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Japan has introduced more than 400 technologies from developed countries in Europe, America and other countries.

  However, while absorbing technology, the Japanese government has also implemented measures such as tariffs and foreign exchange controls to protect the domestic automobile industry, and implemented them through legislation such as the Enterprise Rationalization Promotion Law and the Machinery Industry Revitalization Temporary Measures Law. The tariff barrier for imported automobiles was once as high as 40%. And the penetration of foreign capital into Japanese automobile companies is also strictly guarded.

  In addition to government support, the improvement of technology, quality and management by Japanese automakers at that time also greatly improved the quality of Japanese cars. For example, the Toyota production method, which has far-reaching impact on future generations, was born in the early 1950s. And some classic models that continue to this day, such as Toyota Crown, Corolla, Nissan Bluebird, Honda Civic, etc., were also introduced one after another in the 1950s and 1960s.

  In addition, in order to strengthen the overall quality of Japanese cars and eliminate uncompetitive enterprises, under the leadership of the Japanese government, Japanese cars carried out a series of mergers in the 1960s, reducing the number of highly competitive 30 to about 10, which increased the concentration of the industry.

  By 1970, the annual sales of Japanese cars had reached 4.10 million, 10 times that of the early 1960s, and the number of cars owned by 1,000 people had risen from 14 in 1960 to about 170.

  After all, the local market demand in Japan is limited. At the same time as the rapid growth of the industry, Japanese car companies are also trying to export. However, throughout the 1960s, Japanese cars were mainly aimed at the third world countries in South America and South East Asia. The best-selling models in Japan, such as the Toyota Crown, were also exported to the United States, but sales were also very low because they did not meet the needs of American consumers.

  It was not until the arrival of the first oil crisis that Japanese cars were "a blessing in disguise" and really went to the world, especially major automobile consumer markets such as Europe, America and others.

  blessing in disguise

  In 1970, at the call of American social environmentalists at that time, the US government introduced the "Air Purification Act" (Musky Act), which stipulated that after five years, cars emitted only one-tenth of the pollutants. This bill undoubtedly dealt a heavy blow to the three American giants that were popular at that time, but it provided an opportunity for Japanese cars to further open up the US market.

  In 1972, the CVCC engine developed by Honda became the first engine to comply with the Musky Act and quickly gained popularity in the United States.

  In October 1973, shortly after the outbreak of the Fourth Middle East War, the United States publicly sided with Israel and provided it with $2.20 billion in military aid. In order to sanction the United States and the West, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) began to implement a series of production cuts and oil embargoes. After the war, the oil exporting countries continued to cut production by more than 10% and pushed to raise the price of oil from $3 per barrel to $13, which was the first oil crisis.

  The oil crisis dealt a heavy blow to the developed automobile industry in Europe and the United States. During this period, global automobile production fell from nearly 40 million to 33 million. Car consumers in Europe and the United States had to give up their favorite large-displacement cars and performance cars in favor of affordable small-displacement cars. The auto giants were also forced to abandon their original production plans for large cars.

  Throughout the 1970s, Japan’s domestic auto market ended a period of rapid growth, with sales increasing from 4.10 million to 5 million. After the shock, Japan launched a new energy technology development plan in 1974, and introduced an industrial policy to reduce energy consumption, focusing on the development and promotion of energy-saving technologies and equipment. Later, the Energy Conservation Law was introduced to restrain it.

  But at the same time, Japan’s industrial structure dominated by small-displacement vehicles has allowed Japanese cars to find opportunities to break through overseas. Although the previous Japanese cars were scorned by many Europeans and Americans because of their brands, more people began to choose cars with better fuel economy due to the economic pressure caused by fuel consumption. At this time, in addition to affordable prices, Japanese cars have made great progress in technology and production management. In the past, the stereotype of counterfeit products and inferior quality in the eyes of Westerners was changed. Coupled with the good relations between Japan and the United States, Japanese cars soon became popular in the American market.

  In 1975, Japan’s domestic automobile production exceeded 7 million for the first time; by 1977, Japan’s automobile exports had reached 4.35 million, three times more than in 1970; the proportion of exported automobiles in total automobile production skyrocketed from 20% in 1970 to more than 50%.

  The shadow of the first oil crisis has not yet dissipated. With the outbreak of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the Iran-Iraq War, the second oil crisis followed in the early 1980s, with oil prices rising from $14 per barrel to nearly $40. Global car sales fell for four consecutive years during the crisis, from 42 million to less than 39 million.

  This time, however, Japan’s increasingly mature auto industry has achieved greater success. During the second oil crisis, Japan’s domestic automobile production exceeded 10 million and 11 million in a row, and its exports exceeded 6 million for the first time. In 1980, Japanese automobiles surpassed the United States for the first time to become the world’s largest.

  The most important reason why Japanese cars can overtake American cars is the continued "attack" on the US market. During the second oil crisis, the production of American cars fell from 11 million to 8 million. In contrast, from 1978 to 1980, the number of Japanese car exports to the United States increased from 1.50 million to nearly 2 million, and the sales reached 2.40 million. The proportion of imported cars in the United States reached 80%, and the share of Japanese cars in the US market was as high as 20%.

  The real crisis

  Japan’s economic take-off and the strength of Japanese cars in the US market have threatened the US government and automakers. Under the impact of Japanese cars, American giants such as GM, Ford, and Chrysler have laid off more than 220,000 workers. The United Auto Workers (UAW) even broke out a campaign to smash Japanese cars.

  Under pressure from the United States, after negotiations between Japan and the United States, an agreement on independent restrictions on Japanese exports of cars to the United States was formed in 1981, which stipulated that the export scale of Japanese cars to the US market in subsequent years was limited to 1.68 million cars in 1981-1983, 1.85 million cars in 1984, 2.30 million cars in 1985 and 1986, and then dropped to about 2 million cars in subsequent years.

  At the same time, Japanese automakers began to choose to set up factories or joint ventures in the US market to avoid policy restrictions. After 1982, Honda, Nissan, Toyota, and Mazda successively established factories in the United States. In addition, joint ventures between Toyota and General Motors, Mitsubishi and Chrysler were also established during this period.

  On the other hand, under the premise of limited sales, Japanese cars to improve brand perception and increase profitability, Honda, Toyota, Nissan and other leading companies have launched high-end models for the needs of North American consumers, Acura, Lexus and Infiniti were born in this period.

  As a result, despite the decrease in imports, the profits of Japanese automakers have actually increased due to the high-priced luxury cars produced in the United States. With the outbreak of the Gulf War, the third oil crisis came. In the 1990s, the world’s car production decreased from nearly 50 million to 47 million, but Japan’s domestic car production approached 13.50 million, and sales reached a historical peak of 7.77 million. In addition, Japan’s overseas car production also exceeded 3 million for the first time, and the proportion of Japanese cars in the world rose to nearly 40%.

  However, luck has not always favored Japanese cars. Since the Plaza Accord in 1985, Japan’s domestic economic bubble burst due to the appreciation of the yen, which ushered in the "lost decade", and Japan’s domestic car production and sales have also slipped from their peak and began to decline year by year.

  Under the policy protection of domestic enterprises and the continuous suppression of Japanese cars. In 1994, American cars regained the first place in the global market. In 1995, the US government further announced a 100% tariff on luxury cars from Japan. The following year, Japanese car exports fell directly to 3.71 million, a decrease of 45% compared with the 1985 Plaza Agreement.

  Faced with the difficulties caused by economic stagnation, Japanese automakers are not sitting still. In order to continue to cater to the industry trend of energy conservation and emission reduction, Japanese automakers continue to develop engine technologies with stronger fuel economy. In 1997, the Toyota Prius based on THS hybrid technology was launched, and it became the best-selling model in North America again in the early 21st century. Later, the Honda i-MMD and Nissan e-Power were launched one after another, and the Japanese hybrid once again played a brand effect in the global market.

  In addition, while the US market is encountering bottlenecks, Japanese automakers are also continuously providing growth impetus by expanding into more overseas markets and increasing their emphasis on the emerging Chinese market. Entering the 21st century, Nissan, Toyota, Honda, Mazda, Mitsubishi and Suzuki have successively established joint venture factories in China, and have continuously introduced overseas best-selling models into domestic production and sales.

  Today, Japanese cars still have a 30% market share worldwide. Toyota is still the world’s largest automaker, with Honda and Renault-allied Nissan also in the top 10. In the United States, Toyota surpassed General Motors for the first time last year. In the Chinese market, the share of Japanese cars that came from behind has also reached more than 20%, which is on par with Germany. The value retention rate of mainstream Japanese brands is also among the best in China.

  Take a look.

  The rise of Japanese automobiles has been regarded by many in the industry as a model for the development of Chinese automobiles. For example, the Japanese government’s protection of local automobile companies and the control of the shareholding ratio of joint ventures, as well as the policy support for the production of small-displacement automobiles, have been used for reference by the Chinese automobile industry that has fully emerged after the reform and opening up.

  In addition, the experience of Japanese cars expanding overseas markets and gradually going global 60 years ago is also similar to the aggressive route of today’s leading Chinese independent brands. At present, Chinese independent brands are exporting small cars to developing countries in Southeast Asia and the Middle East in the early years, and turning to more regional markets. Even Europe exports some mid-to-high-end models and new energy vehicles, and sells back some cars produced by European and American automakers in China to the mainland.

  However, there are still significant differences in the automobile development environment and era background between Japan and China.

  Japan is an island country with relatively few natural resources, and it relies almost entirely on imports for the basic energy that supports the automobile industry, which is also the inherent disadvantage of the rise of Japanese cars. On the contrary, China not only has rich land resources, but also has the largest population and the largest market in the world.

  In today’s world, a series of black swan events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, Sino-US trade, and the situation in Russia and Ukraine have seriously impacted the world economy and the process of globalization. The shadow of previous oil crises still hangs over the heads of major countries. Although China is rich in resources, it is as dependent on oil imports as Japan. Getting rid of dependence on oil and reducing carbon emissions has become the consensus of major automobile industrial countries.

  The oil crisis of the 1970s and 1990s had the greatest impact on the automobile industry because of the irreplaceability of petroleum energy. However, with the development of technology, new energy vehicles led by electricity began to show a substitute role for fuel vehicles. Therefore, the development of new energy vehicles, which is the trend of overtaking cars in China’s car corners, has been formulated as a national policy by our country. At present, China has been the world’s largest new energy vehicle market for seven consecutive years, accounting for more than half of the global share. The overtaking of traditional fuel vehicles in Europe and the United States 50 years ago by Japanese cars is now being recreated by China’s automobile industry.

Subject 3 Full Edition Dance Exposure: Behind it is actually a difficult mechanical dance.

According to a number of domestic media reports, dance subject III exploded on the Internet, but the subject III transmitted on the Internet was only a short magical movement. Some netizens pulled out the full version of the dance video of subject III. Surprisingly, its difficult movements were staggering.

Netizen feels:

I thought it was the whole job, but why did I really dance in the back?

On social shaking or looking at old drivers in Guangxi

Therefore, the ancient martial arts were lost from generation to generation [allow sorrow]

Call on Haidilao to learn the mechanical dance at the back, and the tip is extra.

Wandering stars

According to public reports, "Subject III" originated from a wedding. This dance was spread through a short video platform, with interesting movements and dynamic background music, which quickly triggered the imitation of netizens.

In Haidilao Hotpot Store, just say "I want subject three" to the waiter, and the waiter will enthusiastically perform this cheerful dance for you.

A netizen said that the background music of "Subject III" dance has a strong sense of rhythm, simple movements and distinct rhythm, and it will shake the body involuntarily after brushing the video.

Experts remind that you should warm up before dancing, mobilize your body’s functions, and do your movements in place to prevent injuries during dancing.

Forty Years of China’s Literary Creation: From "Wound Literature" to "Network Novel"

  Forty years of China’s literary creation: from "scar literature" to "online novel"

  China news agency, Beijing, October 6 (Reporter Gao Kai) "Literary changes are influenced by the world, and the rise and fall depend on the time sequence" (Liu Xie, Southern Dynasty), from "scar literature" to "online novel", China’s literary creation has experienced colorful ups and downs with social changes in the past 40 years.

  In 1977, the 11th issue of People’s Literature published Liu Xinwu’s "Head Teacher" in the headline of "Special Short Stories". The novel was criticized as "criticism and enlightenment" and the pursuit of authenticity, which exposed the spiritual poison caused by the "Cultural Revolution" to teenagers. In 1978, a wave of literary creations revealed the harm of the Cultural Revolution to the people’s spirit, such as Wound by Lu Xinhua and Soul and Body by Zhang Xianliang, told the spiritual history records of a generation of China intellectuals who reflected on the Cultural Revolution. It was called "Wound Literature" in the literary history, while The Head Teacher was regarded as a "pioneering work".

  This year, in an interview with the media, Liu Xinwu said that "scar literature" is more about expressing thoughts, opinions and viewpoints, rather than really digging deep into the literature itself. In fact, when literature continues to progress, and then the creation is required to truly return to the literary ontology, it is far from enough to express the views on social life. "Trauma literature naturally melts with the development of the times."

  What the reform has brought to China people is not only the abundance of material life, but also the expansion of individual thought and living space.

  Since 1978, with the economic and social changes, Dangdai’s literary publications such as October, Flower City and Everyone have come out in succession, and they have quickly become fertile ground for the growth of literary creation.

  After the "scar literature", a large number of reform works emerged, from Zhang Jie’s "Heavy Wings" to Ke Yunlu’s "New Star", which aroused widespread public concern. "New Star" appeared as a avant-garde literary image that reflected realistic problems and confronted social contradictions, and its adaptation of the TV series of the same name gained unprecedented attention and ratings at that time.

  In 1986, Lu Yao’s Ordinary World interwoven daily life with huge social conflicts, showing the difficult and tortuous road that ordinary people have taken in the historical process of the great era. This award-winning work of Mao Dun Literature Award not only won the recognition of the literary world, but also aroused strong resonance among readers and became the "explosion" of that year.

  China literature is increasingly returning to literary noumenon, and it is more inclined to pure literature.

  Since the middle and late 1980s, a number of outstanding writers, such as Yu Hua, Su Tong, Liu Suola, Acheng and Ge Fei, have successively published their "golden" works.

  In 1985, Mo Yan published the novella Transparent Carrots in China Writers, which added a wonderful stroke to the literature in the new period with magnificent imagination and expanded the creative space of novels in the new period. Mo Yan became famous in one fell swoop. Twenty-seven years later, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature because his works "magical realism blended folk stories, history and contemporary society".

  Chen Jiangong, vice chairman of the Chinese Writers Association, said that during the period from 1978 to 2008, China’s literary creation, writers constantly expanded the realm of "ego", and integrated "ego" into the feelings of home and country, national worries and joys, and the people’s upsurge of creating history and the torrent of national rejuvenation. ? From "non-ego" to "ego" and from "ego" to "ego", the creative subject of literature has finally found its own artistic and historical orientation, which is the mystery of the outstanding personality of literary creation and the heavy and vigorous literary pattern over the years.

  With the progress of science and technology and social development, the Internet has increasingly entered the lives of China people, and network literature has emerged. Since Cai Zhiheng’s online novel "The First Intimate Contact" became popular in 1998, China’s online literature has gone through 20 years.

  With the development of film, animation, games and other related industries in recent years, the annual income of many online writers has reached "tens of millions".

  Born in 1981, the online writer "Tang Jiasan Shao" has owned his own cultural investment company, ranking first in the rich list of online writers in China for many years. In addition to the material sense of existence, after years of development, China online writers have also become a member of the mainstream literary creation. Tang Jiasan believes that the traditional literary world has accepted and tolerated online literature to a great extent. With the network literature entering a new turning point in history, the network literature, which started from leisure and entertainment, has also shown a positive trend in the creation of realistic themes.

  Literature comes from the times and also records the times. Looking back on the 40 years of reform and opening up, China’s literary creation is magnificent, and the future can be expected. As Mr. Lu Xun said, "Infinite distance and countless people are all related to me". (End)

Xiamen’s intergenerational relay facing the sea

  On January 22 nd, Wuyuanwan Wetland Park in Xiamen, Fujian, tourists photographed black swans on the plank road. Wuyuan Bay was once covered with salt drying fields, farms and garbage dumps, and the natural ecosystem was seriously damaged, so it was considered as an uninhabitable place. In 2005, Xiamen started the comprehensive improvement project of Wuyuan Bay, implemented measures such as ecological restoration, comprehensive development and overall development, reserved plots worth tens of billions of yuan in the central city to carry out ecological protection and restoration, and built a wetland park of about 99 hectares, attracting more than 90 kinds of wild birds to feed and inhabit, and rare species such as chestnut-throated bee tiger and white dolphin and black swan have settled here one after another. Zhongqing Daily Zhongqing Net reporter Zhang Yujia/photo

  In 1986, an essay-writing activity called "2000-Xiamen in My Mind" aroused widespread concern in Xiamen. Later, more than a dozen good strategies in the essay were adopted and incorporated into the Economic and Social Development Strategy of Xiamen from 1985 to 2000, which was a strategic plan for economic and social development that spanned 15 years earlier by local governments in China, and "beautiful environment" was included in one of the six strategic goals.

  In 2002, a mobilization order of "promoting the development of the island and across the island" was in full swing, encouraging Xiamen to accelerate its transformation from an island-based city to a bay-based ecological city.

  In 2017, BRICS leaders met in Xiamen, and Xiamen was praised as a "high-value ecological garden city".

  In 2024, the national level issued a road map for building a beautiful China in an all-round way. Xiamen’s ecological practice for more than 30 years is like a microcosm, and it has become a pioneer in comprehensively promoting the construction of a beautiful China. Recently, the reporter visited Xiamen, looking for generations of successive strugglers and exploring the practical code of beautiful Xiamen.

  Find the way of ecological management from a lake

  Xiamen is endowed with unique advantages as well as the unique sea. This city has won the reputation of "International Garden City" and "UN Habitat Award" successively, not only because of its talent, but also because of its arduous efforts.

  Yaodang Lake was originally deep into the inner bay fishing port of Xiamen Island. At night, the fishing fire was like a star, the scenery was like a dream, and the grand scene of "Yaodang fishing fire" spread. But in the 1970s, the lake turned black and smelly, and the fish, shrimp and egrets disappeared.








  The earliest 20-character governance policy has been affecting the ecological construction of Xiamen. As the first principle, "governing the lake according to law" has not only run through the comprehensive management of Yundang Lake for 36 years, but also is the background color of Xiamen’s ecological construction.

  Many cadres in Xiamen said that if there is no guarantee of the rule of law, ecological restoration will be difficult for a long time. In 1994, after Xiamen obtained the legislative power of special economic zones, the first substantive local regulation was the Regulations of Xiamen on Environmental Protection. Since then, Xiamen has given full play to the advantages of the legislative power of special economic zones in the construction of marine rule of law, and has successively formulated more than ten laws and regulations related to the sea.

  The controversy about the use of Aoguan natural coastline in Haicang Bay of Xiamen has lasted for many years. Yu Xingguang, former director of the Third Institute of Oceanography of the Ministry of Natural Resources, said that although this natural coastline is only a few hundred meters, it contains different landforms such as beaches, reefs, mangroves and wetlands, and developers are also optimistic about this coastline. Yu Xingguang, a former deputy to Xiamen Municipal People’s Congress, has called on many occasions to protect the "pocket" coastline of Aoguan.

  The protection of the coastline was finally written into "Several Provisions on Marine Environmental Protection in Xiamen City" in the form of laws and regulations, and Article 16 of Chapter III clearly stipulates that "any activity to change the natural coastline of Aoguan coastal area is prohibited".

  In addition to investment governance and legal protection, Xiamen also has a series of institutional innovations, such as establishing the marine management office of the municipal government, taking the lead in setting up a professional marine cleaning team in the country, prohibiting the introduction of heavy pollution projects, rationally arranging industrial concentration areas, and promoting the relocation and upgrading of enterprises in the main city.

  From a lake, a coastline, a bay, an island, a mountain, from a part to the whole, from the mountain top to the ocean, Xiamen has built a system governance system and a "multi-regulation" business collaboration platform.

  Ke Yuzong, Party Secretary and Director of Xiamen Natural Resources and Planning Bureau, introduced that all kinds of spatial planning originally scattered in natural resources, development and reform, ecological environment, water conservancy and other departments were integrated as a whole, and all kinds of ecological environment control requirements were managed by drawing, forming a "blueprint" of global space based on ecological environment, supported by resource carrying capacity and based on special planning of various departments, so as to save resources and protect the environment to the maximum extent.

  Positive interaction between scientific and technological support and scientific decision-making

  For more than 30 years, Xiamen’s "high face value" cannot be separated from strong scientific and technological support. In the Economic and Social Development Strategy of Xiamen from 1985 to 2000, "environmental protection technology" is clearly regarded as the key social science and technology field.

  With the deepening of marine ecological restoration, the problems involve a wide range, involving many stakeholders, and the problems of science and technology, administration, law, economy and environment are intertwined. How to allocate basin resources and plan space? Each department has its own work objectives.

  In 1995, the Xiamen Municipal Government’s Coordination Leading Group for Integrated Marine Management was established, with the mayor or deputy mayor as the team leader and department leaders as members, and the Marine Management Office, a functional department of the government’s integrated marine affairs management, was also established.

  In 1996, Xiamen took the lead in setting up a marine expert group in China relying on the Marine Management Office, and the municipal government issued a letter of appointment. Hong Huasheng, the first returned female doctor of oceanography in China, was the first group leader.

  The personnel structure of the expert group also changes with the development stage of Xiamen. At first, there were only some experts in the fields of ocean and planning. When the goal of marine ecological restoration is gradually expanded, legal experts and economists are added. When Xiamen is open to the whole world outside the island, Xiamen’s high-quality marine economic development needs major technical preparation, and some influential academicians join in.

  Yu Xingguang, a former leader of the expert group, recalled that in principle, every two months, the expert group listened to a briefing on important matters related to the sea in Xiamen, and the city leaders in charge of the ocean discussed with the members of the expert group. "Suggestions can be made on the spot, or not necessarily on the spot. It can be written or oral. " Through consultation, investigation, feedback and continuous communication, the expert group reached a basic consensus, and most of the opinions were adopted by the government to a high degree, forming a benign interaction. "This mechanism is a scientific decision-making model that relies on science and technology, takes fewer detours and seeks truth from facts."

  "My contact with scientists is like a student going to worship a teacher." Pan Shijian, who was the deputy mayor of Xiamen at that time, kept a "seamless" close contact with the expert group. "Sometimes my mind is prone to fever, so I should listen to other people’s opinions."

  Pan Shijian said that many ideas and details can’t be communicated just by holding a meeting, but by calling or visiting at any time, and opening up information to experts. "There is nothing to hide."

  Gaoji seawall, which blocks the east and west waters of Xiamen, is 2212 meters long and has played an important role in Xiamen’s history. The opening of Gaoji seawall is regarded as the top priority of "Xiamen’s marine ecological function restoration project". Hong Huasheng introduced that after the opening, the "meridians" of the sea area were opened, and the originally semi-closed bay became an open and permeable bay, which was conducive to enhancing the water exchange capacity and largely solved the problem of the maximum environmental capacity of the entire western sea area of Xiamen and Tongan Bay, which played the most critical role in the entire ecological restoration.

  How to determine the opening width, tidal capacity, dredging depth, hydrodynamic improvement and siltation degree, water quality control index, etc. The Third Institute of Oceanography of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Xiamen University conducted back-to-back mathematical model research and calculation comparison at the same time, and nanjing hydraulic research institute also conducted physical model experiments to ensure accuracy and science.

  In the past 2023, there were 60 or 70 species of birds observed in Xiatanwei Mangrove Park in Xiamen, which is the latest data from the team of Yang Shengchang, an associate professor at the School of Environment and Ecology of Xiamen University. Before the ecological restoration in this area, there were only twenty or thirty species of birds.

  "After the implementation of the ecological restoration project, the biggest thing is the ecological benefits, especially the significant improvement of biodiversity." Yang Shengchang said that the number of benthic organisms such as shellfish, shrimps and crabs has also increased by about three times. In the early years, Xiatan tail was frequently farmed out of order and seriously polluted. It was regarded as a remote place by Xiamen people and unwilling to come. "After coming, it will be smoked away by the smell of seawater." The local native mangroves have also been seriously damaged.

  Mangroves are regarded as "the protector of islands". Since 2005, Xiamen Municipal Government has entrusted Academician Lin Peng of Xiamen University to lead the research group of mangrove project of Xiamen University to plant mangrove experimental forest in Xiatanwei. Mangrove restoration has been included as a private practical project by Xiamen Municipal Government.

  Lu Changyi, a student in Lin Peng and dean of the School of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tan Kah Kee College of Xiamen University, recalled that some villagers had resistance to the construction of the mangrove wetland at Xiatanwei, and some villagers even climbed onto the hook machine to stop the project.

  In May 2012, at the beginning of the project, Lu Changyi came to the village with a portable projector on his back. As night fell, he borrowed a white sheet as a curtain, hung it on the stone wall at the head of the village, and told the villagers about his ecological "open class". With the efforts of all parties, the villagers finally expressed their understanding and support for the Xiatanwei project. More than 60% of the mangrove planting workers are composed of local villagers.

  Today, Xiatanwei Mangrove Park has become a green buffer zone to resist typhoon, storm surge and other marine disasters, integrating nature education, leisure science and other functions. Yang Shengchang said: "There are almost no children in Xiamen who don’t know about mangroves."

  In November 2023, Peter Thomson, Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General for Ocean Affairs, came to Xiatanwei Mangrove Park during Xiamen International Ocean Week, and highly affirmed the balance between ecology and economy in Xiamen, expecting it to provide "Xiamen samples" for international marine ecological environment governance.

  High-level protection and high-quality development

  Why is Xiamen so different?

  When we carefully explore the logic of urban texture formation, we will find that there are many wonderful "concessions" in Xiamen: in order to protect more than 500 trees, the lucky chance Bridge in Wuyuan Bay has made a detour; In order not to disturb the Chinese white dolphins, the scheme of Xiang’ an cross-sea bridge was changed to a submarine tunnel with double construction cost and greater construction risk; In order to avoid reservoirs and plants, Xiamen built a mountain road with only three lanes; There is a 3-hectare nature reserve in the middle of the high-rise buildings in the urban area, which is reserved for the "most beautiful bird in China" to settle down and breed. Xiamen is their breeding and habitat in the northernmost latitude of the world.

  "Concession" everywhere is not a compromise, but a kind look back on the natural life of the triumphant city, and the wisdom of cooperating with high-quality development and high-level protection.

  Pan Shijian remembers that at the beginning of the 21st century, Xiamen was in the period of rapid construction of the Special Economic Zone and needed money everywhere. "On the one hand, we are faced with building this city quickly to meet the needs of the people. At the same time, we are also faced with an island city with a beautiful environment that needs ecological restoration. There are many specific and difficult choices." Pan Shijian said, "We don’t simply dial the abacus, and the calculated value is still not worth it."

  Taking Wuyuan Bay in the northeast of Xiamen Island as an example, due to seawall blocking and regional development and construction, the water exchange capacity in this area is poor, and planting, breeding and salt field management also lead to increased pollution. In 2003, the local per capita GDP was only 39.4% of the average level of Xiamen. Two years later, Xiamen started the comprehensive improvement project of Wuyuan Bay with reference to the management experience of Yaodang Lake.

  At first, the land in Wuyuanwan Bay was planned to be stored as construction land. The Xiamen Municipal Government fully solicited and adopted expert opinions, adjusted the development and utilization planning of Wuyuanwan area in time, abandoned the hot real estate development at that time, and reserved 89 hectares of original wetlands in the bay.

  The habitat of chestnut-throated bee tiger is also in this wetland. In 2011, the Xiamen Municipal Government designated the Chestnut-throated Bee Tiger Nature Reserve, in which 37 hectares in Wuyuanwan Wetland Area are feeding grounds and 3 hectares in the urban area are breeding grounds. According to the original plan, if these 40 hectares were used for development, the land value would be as high as 3 billion yuan.

  "Is this article about urban construction simple or complicated? Xiamen’s development philosophy is: what you do today should provide a better platform and environment for tomorrow’s development. " Pan Shijian said.

  Later data showed that by the end of 2022, the land value of Wuyuanwan area alone had increased by more than eight times compared with that of 2005, and the value created far exceeded the income from real estate development abandoned at that time, and the chestnut-throated bee tiger retained valuable habitats.

  Today, Wuyuan Bay has become a new "city meeting room" in Xiamen, attracting more than 300 well-known enterprises to settle down; Xiamen International Yacht Club and Sailing Port have been built, and more and more young people come to experience sailing, yachting and surfing. Music festivals, trunk fairs and art exhibitions will also be held on weekends.

  "Looking up is fresh blue, and looking around is pleasant green." Strolling through Xiamen, people will find that the distance between people and the sea is so close, cyclists ride in the bay driveway, children chase the sea, the elderly do morning exercises in the seaside park, and in the afterglow of sunset, the long shadows of citizens and tourists cover Baicheng beach.

  Huang Zhiquan, a member of Xiamen Bird Watching Association, loves two scenic spots in Xiamen. One is the white scenery where flocks of egrets catch fish at the gate of the west dike of Miandang Lake, and the other is the black scenery where flocks of wintering cormorants arrive as scheduled every winter and feed and inhabit in Xinglin Bay, forming a unique ecological wonder of "Qi Fei with ten thousand birds".

  Earlier Xinglin Bay was still a rotten mire. Xinglin Bay used to be a beautiful bay in history, but it has been affected by dams, production, construction and aquaculture pollution for a long time. Some experts came here to inspect, and the ship could not move forward before it got close, and it was full of silt.

  The construction of Garden Expo Garden in Xinglin Bay, jimei district, Xiamen is the most difficult project that Pan Shijian has handled. He not only wants to carry out ecological restoration in this area, but also wants to build Jimei New City, and Yuanboyuan is an opportunity.

  It only took more than two years from the application for construction to the final completion of the Garden Expo Garden. For this purpose, Xiamen has set up a special headquarters to conduct in-depth investigations on various birds, fish and other animals and plants to ensure that the original ecological balance will not be destroyed during development and construction. Seriously protect the original ecological green space, water system and nursery, and obtain good ecological benefits with minimal transformation or no transformation.

  It is difficult to estimate how much economic growth this water garden has driven in jimei district. Jimei district used to be an old industrial zone in Xiamen. Now, an industrial chain with garden art, culture and education, sports, hot spring vacation, water sports and navigation education has been gradually established, forming a sustainable industrial system.

  Xie Ming, deputy director of the Bureau of Industry and Information Technology of jimei district, Xiamen, said that in the past 10 years, the net population growth of jimei district was the largest in Fujian Province, reaching more than 500,000 people, and it is also the most populous district in Xiamen at present, reaching more than 1.1 million people, and the youth aged 14-35 accounted for 46% of the total population in the region. Young employees of some enterprises said that when they choose their place of residence, the beautiful environment and industrial agglomeration are very attractive.

  Tens of thousands of fishermen have landed in successive bay renovations to make room for the blue sea and silver beach.

  In order to avoid the loss of fishermen’s interests and ensure their livelihood, the government has set up special social security for fishermen who have lost their lives, organized re-employment training after landing, arranged for fishermen to work in enterprises and give subsidies, set up funds to encourage entrepreneurship.

  Some fishermen change jobs, and some fishermen go to other places to seek development with their farming skills. Lin Yulin, deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Pantu Community in Tong ‘an District, Xiamen, said that the annual aquaculture output of Pantu people exceeds 400,000 tons, and about 10% of the output is transported back to Pantu. The output value of Pantu oyster accounts for about 70% of the Xiamen market.

  Electronics, machinery, light industry and chemical industry were once the pillar industries in Xiamen. Xiamen has given up extensive industries, laid out strategic emerging industries led by scientific and technological innovation, and achieved remarkable results in marine economy and cultural tourism economy. The data shows that in 2023, the proportion of the tertiary industry in Xiamen exceeded 60%, which was nearly 6 percentage points higher than the national level; The added value of high-tech manufacturing industry accounts for more than 40% of the industrial proportion, which is 27 percentage points higher than that of the whole country; The energy consumption and water consumption of GDP per 10,000 yuan are at the leading level in China.

  Today, Xiamen has developed into a high-quality city of innovation and entrepreneurship, with rapid development of new economy and new industries, keeping pace with trade and investment, and reaching five continents by sea, land and air. Xiamen embraces the world with a more open attitude.

  According to the relevant person in charge of the Department of Resource Conservation and Environmental Protection of the National Development and Reform Commission, Xiamen’s cooperation with high-level protection and high-quality development has broken the problem. "The development of Xiamen does not depend on the consumption of resources and energy. Its practice has proved that high-level ecological protection can also create and develop new formats and support new economic advantages."

  This is a relay race from generation to generation. Yu Xingguang has worked and lived in Xiamen for 43 years, witnessing Xiamen’s firm goal of ecological protection and restoration. "It will not change because of the change of leadership, will not retreat because of temporary economic difficulties, and will not change because of changes in the economic and ecological situation."

  Xiamen "leaves the most beautiful beaches to the people" and protects the rocks and landforms along the beach and coast to the maximum extent; In all kinds of protection measures, the opinions of the masses are widely listened to, and Ludao children carefully care for every piece of green around them.

  Enterprises and citizens actively subscribe for tree planting and daily management on Maluan Bay Ecological Island; "Citizen Lake Chief" competes to protect the Yaodang Lake; People call the Chinese white dolphin "Mazu fish", giving it the meaning of good luck.

  "Xiamen people love nature." Pan Shijian grew up in Xiamen. When he was a child, he loved to climb trees and talk to birds in the trees. Birds chirped and he chirped. He likes swimming in the sea and watching crabs get into the beach. He said: "The owners of this city are not only people, but also animals and plants."

  When he becomes a city builder, he wants to plant trees with large crowns that can make birds nest; It is also necessary to plant insect-infested trees so that birds can have food to eat; Plant trees in crevices of stones, on reefs at sea and on uninhabited islands. He also grows vegetables on his balcony and feeds them to the birds. "To truly love this city." Pan Shijian holds the idea that "the city is our mother." He built a sculpture on the beach beside the winding roundabout, where a mother was playing with her children at the seaside.

  Zhongqingbao Zhongqingwang reporter Zhang Yi Source: China Youth Daily

Four strokes are the best, which one do you like best?

(Circle cards have been added here, please go to today’s headline client to check)

Anyone who often swims knows that if you want to attract attention in the swimming pool, you should swim a medley! So do you know the main points of various swimming strokes? Have you chosen a stroke that suits you? Look at the main points of the following swimming strokes.


The simplest stroke.

Keep your body level and move forward by pulling the water back with your hands. The stroke has a downward angle, because the head is exposed to the water to inhale with the help of downward force.

As shown in the picture below, pay attention to the leg movements. During the backward kick, the soles of the feet are perpendicular to the direction of the body and have the largest contact with the water.

Hands and feet move alternately, paddling-retracting legs when the head sinks-kicking when the body is parallel to the water-paddling.

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The most chic stroke.

Leg movements are very simple, just straighten your legs, relax your knees and ankles, stand on tiptoe (generally speaking, try to imitate fish and minimize resistance), and fetch water up and down.

The difficulty of freestyle is breathing!

When our left hand slides, our left shoulder is down, and when our right hand slides, our right shoulder is down. When one hand slides in the water, the body is sideways. At this time, you can raise your head a little and breathe in. When you exchange hands, your head will be down. At this time, exhale slowly through your nose (to prevent water from entering your nose). Generally, your hands breathe alternately twice.

butterfly stroke

The most domineering stroke.

Spread your arms horizontally, like a butterfly flapping its wings.

Butterfly upper limb movements:

The power provided by leg movements is relatively small, and leg movements are specifically divided into bending knees-lifting hips-kicking legs (calves). Most people have coordination problems in butterfly stroke and kicking, which requires long-term practice.


The easiest stroke.

The density of people is very close to that of water. Taking a deep breath in the water makes people float, and when they finish spitting, they will sink. The advantage of backstroke is that we just need to drop our mouth and nose out of the water, and we don’t need to spend any effort on breathing.

Backstroke is actually a freestyle in which the kick is the same as freestyle, and the hand is the same principle, but the face is up and you are not worried about breathing. For wild swimmers, backstroke is actually a rest posture. Backstroke is not suitable for swimming pools, because there will be people swimming around the waves and they can’t see the situation ahead.

If there is no professional coach, people who learn swimming will ignore the most basic exercises, and they will practice breaststroke and freestyle when they get into the water. This is unrealistic, and everyone should start from the most basic. Please pay attention to the practice of water, holding your breath and breathing!

The biggest secret of swimming is to dare to try!

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Universiade qualifying-Zhang Ning 27 points Chen Guohao 22+8 China university students’ men’s basketball team beat Japan.

Live broadcast: August 4th, 9-12 men’s basketball teams in Chengdu Universiade will qualify, and China college students’ men’s basketball team will play against Japanese team.

At the beginning of the game, the two teams were evenly matched. Chen Guohao kept storming the basket and scored 10 points. The Japanese team responded quickly inside and outside. Wang Lanying assisted Zhang Ning to make a layup, and Japan made up a goal. At the end of the first quarter, China led by 2 points. In the second quarter, the Japanese team continued to make a 10-4 offensive to overtake the score. Zhang Ning stepped forward and scored 9 points to lead the team to regain the advantage. At half-time, the China University Men’s Basketball Team led 41-37. In the easy-side battle, Chen Guohao and Zhang Ning joined hands to help the team pull the difference to double digits. Japanese Ritu made an effort to catch up, Zhang Ningbiao made a three-pointer to stabilize the situation, and the China college men’s basketball team won 10 points in a single quarter and ended the third quarter with a 63-49 lead. In the final decisive battle, the China team continued to exert more efforts to expand its advantage to more than 20 points in one fell swoop, and kept its advantage to the end slowly and steadily. In the end, China university students’ men’s basketball team defeated Japan and won.

China men’s basketball data: Zhang Ning made 12 of 17 shots, 27 points, 5 rebounds and 4 assists, Chen Guohao made 10 of 21 shots, 22 points, 8 rebounds, 3 assists, 2 caps and 1 break, Hong Xin made 15 points and 6 rebounds, Yang Xihao made 2 points and 4 rebounds, Xie Zhijie made 4 assists and 3 rebounds, Wang Lanying made 2 points, 6 rebounds and 2 assists (1 out of 10), Wiliam made 12 points, 3 rebounds and 2 breaks, and Zou Yang made 2 points, 7 rebounds and 1 assist.

Guangzhou team’s core players are concerned by European teams! U20 Asian Cup, single-handedly attacking the national football team.

Football News reported that Wei Shihao and Yan Dinghao, the two most popular international players of Guangzhou team, and Li Yang, the main central defender of last season, will join Wuhan Sanzhen, the new champion of Chinese Super League, for free. In addition, Tan Kaiyuan of Spanish Team B studying abroad, Wu Shaocong of barsac Saier in Istanbul studying abroad, and Yang Liyu who followed Beijing Guoan training. In the new season, Guangzhou team can only compete in League A with young players like Ling Jie and Ai Fielding from Evergrande Football School as the core. However, the well-known media person "Little Fox in leicester city" revealed:Eiffel may also start a trip abroad in the new season, targeting teams from five major European league countries.

Fans who are concerned about China football know that both the national U20 football team and the national U20 women’s football team are currently competing in the U20 Asian Cup-related competitions (the women’s football team is playing the first stage of the U20 Asian Cup qualifiers). Under the leadership of head coach Antonio, the U20 national football team, with Eiffel as the core of attack, unexpectedly broke out from the group of death (1-2 Japan, 2-0 Saudi Arabia, 1-1 Kyrgyzstan) and successfully advanced to the quarter-finals of the U20 Asian Cup. In these three games, Effectin started as the captain of the field. Moreover, the four goals of U20 national football team in three games are all related to it. It can be said that he is the present U20 pretended attack engine.

In the quarter-finals of the U20 Asian Cup, the U20 national football team will face the test of the old rival South Korea. In this game, Eiffel will continue to start as the captain if there is no accident. The fans are all looking forward to Effectin, and he can still create an opportunity for U20 national football team to break the South Korean team with his own personal ability in this game. Even won the Korean team to advance to the semi-finals. In that case, the U20 national football team will enter the World Youth Championship again after 18 years, so that fans can relive the glory of the 2005 World Youth Championship.

Just seven hours before the start of the game, the well-known sports media person "leicester city’s Little Fox" broke the news: "Eiffel has been in contact with foreign teams. Moreover, Guo Wei’s teams are now paying attention to his performance. It used to be a Nordic team, but now it is a team from five major league countries.

Although, it is not the team of the five major leagues, but the team of the five major league countries. However, for 19-year-old Effectin, it is definitely a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Therefore, the World War I with South Korea has also become an excellent opportunity for Effectin to show himself. As the future star of China football, fans also hope that he can become famous in this game, thus starting his journey abroad. For the rise of China football, we should seek for real professional football, instead of staying in the colorful vats of China A and China Super League.